ever wonder what words mean?

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  1. Shaft

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    Wollof - English Dictionary
    prepared by
    Peace Corps The Gambia
    PO Box 582
    Banjul
    The Gambia
    tel: 220 392120
    1995
    - i -
    PRONOUNCIATION GUIDE
    The wolof pronunciation system is relatively simple. Every symbol stands for only one sound, that is every symbol is
    pronounced the same way in every word.
    The distinction between short and long vowels is very important, because it is sometimes the only way to distinguish pairs of
    words which have different meanings. Long vowels are always doubled, while short vowels are not.
    There is a lot of prenalization in wolof. There usually occur with nasals such as m, n, etc...
    VOWELS
    As indicated, wolof vowels are either long or short. A long vowel is indicated a doubling of the symbol, and it must be
    pronounced a little longer than a short vowel (which is not doubled). Long and short vowels can occur anywhere in the word.
    Vowel Nearest English Equivalent Wolof Examples
    a absorb banta, tapa, santa
    aa far laaj, naaj, caabi
    e get dem, lem, gerte
    ee where seet, leel
    é say bés
    éé sane wéér, réér
    í« bird kí«r, dí«gí«r
    i in, pit nit, simiis, timis
    ii meet siis, lii, kii
    o moment xob, romba
    í³ no ní³b, sí³f
    oo door loo, soo
    í³í³ phone gí³í³r, fí³í³t
    u cook nuyu, ubi
    uu moon tuuru, yuuxu
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    #1
  2. Sightless

    Sightless Veteran

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    I believe "prenalization" should be "prenasalization".

    Also, we do have the IPA system. Why've they gotta mess stuffs up? Granted, the system is rather arbitrary (though clearly culturally biased), but any system of that nature pretty much has to be.

    Good post, though.
     
    #2
  3. Shaft

    Shaft Rookie

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    welcome to GR Sightless....you may want to browse through this before you post more.


    Prepared for the Kaiser Family Foundation by:
    American Social Health Association
    SexuallyTransmitted Diseases
    in America:
    HowMany Cases and at What Cost?
    DECEMBER 1998
    2 Kaiser Family Foundation
    Sexually Transmitted Diseases in America
    Editorial Staff:
    LINDA L. ALEXANDER, Ph.D., F.A.A.N.
    President and Chief Executive Officer
    American Social Health Association
    JOAN R. CATES
    Vice President of Development and Policy
    American Social Health Association
    NANCY HERNDON
    Development Program Manager
    American Social Health Association
    JENNIFER F. RATCLIFFE, Ph.D., M.Sc
    Epidemiologist
    American Social Health Association
    AMERICAN SOCIAL HEALTH ASSOCIATION
    PO Box 13827 (919) 361-8400
    Research Triangle Park, NC 27713 FAX: (919) 361-8425
    http://www.ashastd.org
    KAISER FAMILY FOUNDATION
    2400 Sand Hill Road (650) 854-9400
    Menlo Park, CA 94025 FAX: (650) 854-4800
    http://www.kff.org
    Kaiser Family Foundation 3
    Sexually Transmitted Diseases in America
    Table of Contents
    Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
    ASHA Panel To Estimate STD Incidence, Prevalence and Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
    Estimates of the Incidence and Prevalence of STDs in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
    Estimates of the Direct Medical Costs of STDs in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
    Estimated Impact of STDs State-by-State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
    List of Tables and Figures
    TABLES
    TABLE 1. Strength of Evidence, STD Surveillance Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
    TABLE 2. Estimated Incidence and Prevalence of STDs,
    United States, 1996, by Strength of Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
    TABLE 3. Estimated Annual Medical Costs of the Major Curable STDs in the United States . . 24
    TABLE 4. Estimated Annual Medical Costs of the Major Viral STDs in the United States . . . . 25
    TABLE 5. Estimated Annual Direct Costs of All STDs by State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
    FIGURES
    FIGURE 1. Estimated Annual New Cases of STDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
    FIGURE 2. Total Cases of Viral STDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
    FIGURE 3. Distribution of New Cases of STDs by Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
    4 Kaiser Family Foundation
    Sexually Transmitted Diseases in America
    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have a significant health and economic impact on the American
    people. However, the scope of the STD epidemic can be difficult to measure. The most widely quoted
    estimate â€â€
     
    #3
  4. GRZorak

    GRZorak Rookie

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    Very informative. A+. Printing this now.
     
    #4
  5. Sightless

    Sightless Veteran

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    I have a few issues with that, Shaft. In general, of course I agree, and I think too often people overlook the particular sociocultural factors that influence these statistics to a significant degree.

    My first issue is the use of the word "epidemic". Obviously it's a fair term to apply, but it feels like a CNN report or something. STDs is also kind of misleading in a similar fashion, which is why people tend to talk about STIs instead.

    In particular, the situation with HPV is one that has bothered me for a while, especially considering all the hype surrounding these vaccines that are made available for women and girls. That aside (as that's a whole other argument in itself), it is relevant to that article to note that not all types of HPV are accounted for, and furthermore, that we cannot say anything about the percentage of types that are related to cancer. Indeed, there are types which clear up on their own (which might be considered "curable"?).

    Anyway. My last gripe is about this claim:
    I just want to voice my disagreement. I'm sure most people do agree with that statement, but I think that's part of the problem. It only enforces that view, really, and becomes this ridiculous self-fulfilling perspective. The wording could be altered so that I might agree more. Maybe if they suggested that women are less likely to be vocal about it, I would accept that. They just seem to state it as a fact about the world.

    What think'st thou?

    GRZorak: Be sure to format appropriately.
     
    #5
  6. GRZorak

    GRZorak Rookie

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    nO.
     
    #6
  7. Sightless

    Sightless Veteran

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    nOu.
     
    #7
  8. Shaft

    Shaft Rookie

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    u too are being to dumb two even talk two
     
    #8
  9. Sightless

    Sightless Veteran

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    Oh dear, did you just end a phrase with a prime numeral?
     
    #9
  10. UghRochester

    UghRochester https://www.twitch.tv/ughrochester

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    So Shaft's topics only bring Zorak back to life in the forums? Oh and thank you for copy and pasting Shaft.
     
    #10
  11. Lien

    Lien Rookie

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    I :D at the many :D faces in the list. And yet, this alone is going to make my day! I'm such a simple fellow, ladies take notice!

    Also, why do i have a bunch of squares with lil' zeroes and threes here?
     
    #11
  12. Rakon

    Rakon Rookie

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    I don't understand this thread
     
    #12
  13. MattAY

    MattAY Forum Moderator
    Staff Member

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    What. The. Fuck?

    Shaft is it time to change your password? Because with all that bullshit it looks like you've been hacked into.

    Scrolling down on a hangover is annoying.
     
    #13
  14. Green_Lantern

    Green_Lantern Forum Moderator
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    What is this I don't even.
     
    #14
  15. De-Ting

    De-Ting Rookie

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  16. Bretimus_v2

    Bretimus_v2 So tired.

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  17. schimmel

    schimmel Rookie

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    Can someone close this please? It seems pointless
     
    #17
  18. GRZorak

    GRZorak Rookie

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    Can someone close schimmel please? It seems pointless.
     
    #18
  19. Lien

    Lien Rookie

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    Can someone close quotations please? It seems pointless.
     
    #19
  20. Shaft

    Shaft Rookie

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    #20

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